PC-3M-Luc-C6 – A Model for Prostate Carcinoma

Globally, prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in men.  Prostate cancer is found mainly in older men with approximately 99 percent occurring in men over the age of 50. In the United States, African American men are roughly 70 percent more likely to be diagnosed with […]

4T1-luc2: An Orthotopic Mammary Cancer Model to Support Novel Immuno-Oncology Drug Discovery

Breast cancer is the second most deadly malignancy after lung cancer in woman in the United States, with an estimated 246,000 new cases and 40,450 deaths expected in 2016. Many treatment options for breast cancer exist including surgery, radiotherapy, anti-estrogen therapy, targeted therapies (e.g., trastuzumab), and chemotherapy. Despite these therapeutic advances, metastatic disease remains a […]

786-O (pMMP-LucNeo) – A Model for Renal Cell Carcinoma

Kidney cancer generally occurs in older people, with an average age of diagnosis at 64 years old. Kidney cancer is among the ten most common types of cancer in the United States, with an overall lifetime risk of approximately 1.6 percent. The most common form of kidney cancer is renal […]

5TGM1-luc – A Syngeneic Murine Model for Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of plasma B cells and is the second most common hematological malignancy in the United States. Malignant myeloma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and ultimately replace normal hematopoetic stem cells, which results in progressive leukocyte deficiencies. Chemotherapeutic agents and proteasome inhibitors are standard-of-care front […]

Approaches for Preclinical Evaluation of Ovarian Cancer

Table 1: Ovarian Cancer Models Ovarian cancer is considered a relatively rare gynecologic malignancy but has one of the highest mortality rates due to the non-specific symptoms that occur in early stage disease. This results in most women being diagnosed with advanced stage disease. The incidence of ovarian cancer within […]

A549 – A Model for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) making up about 85% of all lung cancer cases. With the identification of particular tyrosine kinase mutations, such as EGFR and ALK, targeted therapies shifted the paradigm of drug discovery for NSCLC. […]

Evaluation of the Immune Response Following Treatment with Anti-CTLA-4 Antibody, Radiation Therapy, or the Combination in Murine Model of Breast Cancer

Breast cancers are considered poorly immunogenic tumors, however, several approaches utilizing immunotherapies are being undertaken in the clinic to evaluate their potential for improving outcomes. Radiation therapy (RT) is a highly utilized clinical treatment modality in breast cancer. Radiation is known to modify the tumor microenvironment, induce cytokines and chemokines, and has been shown to […]

Comparison of Bioluminescence and MR Imaging to Evaluate Orthotopic Glioma Models

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (also called glioblastoma) is a fast-growing glioma that develops from star-shaped glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) that support the health of the nerve cells within the brain. These tumors are usually highly malignant because the cells reproduce quickly and they are supported by a large network of blood vessels. GBM is the […]

Get Glowing Results From Your Cell Lines – With Luciferase

Firefly (P. pyralis) luciferase is an enzyme that produces bioluminescence in the presence of D-luciferin. The DNA for the luciferase 2 (luc2) gene, along with a puromycin resistance gene, is incorporated into the genome of the cells using a lentiviral transduction system. While culturing the cells, puromycin is added to […]

GL261: Syngeneic Murine Glioma Model

Glioblastomas are known to have a poor prognosis with median survival of nine months and only five to 10 percent of patients surviving up to two years. Conventional therapies include radiotherapies and surgical removal of the tumor in combination with chemotherapy. Unfortunately, these tumors can often be radioresistant and surgical […]

Old Methods for a New Therapy — Imaging Gene Delivery

The promise of gene based therapies is stronger than ever.  Testament to this is the strides being taken in several areas; including mRNA based delivery and RNA interference.1 These successes are driving “new” applications for an “old” in vivo imaging assay, bioluminescence imaging (BLI).  BLI is based on detection of a reporter gene/protein (traditionally firefly […]

MV(4;11): A Model of Human AML (acute myeloid leukemia)

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disorder of the progenitor cells in myeloid hematopoiesis and represents a genetically heterogeneous cancer. The onset of AML is thought to require cooperation between active proliferation and defects in myeloid differentiation, which often results in chromosomal translocation (Gilliland et al., 2004). The annual incidence of AML is ~1.8 per […]